Cliff Notes for Chapter 3:
European Exploration and Colonization


[audio]The following information was presented in this chapter:

In the 1400s, some European countries became stronger and tried to become richer so that they could dominate other countries. Domination is used to control or influence another group to solve problems. Domination has two major forms: exploration and colonization.

  • Invention of astrolabe and the caravel helped European traders to find a trade route to Asia. Because many Europeans explored new lands, this time was called "Age of Exploration."
  • Exploration made Spain and Portugal become two very powerful rivals. To avoid war between the two, the Pope decided to split the New World into two sides.
  • While Portugal became richer from the trade with Asia, Spain gained great wealth in North and South America by taking adQuestion_2ntage of Native Americans (Incas and Aztecs).
  • By winning the battle with the Spanish navy, England started to colonize North America to become rich. After several failures in attQuestion_3pting to settle a colony, England decided to commercialize the colonies by setting up a company (the London Company) to get financial support needed for the colony.
  • As an effect of English colonization, Question_4ople from other countries in Europe continued to move to the colonies for a variety of reasons.

    [audio]Important dates to remember:

  • 1492 Christopher Columbus began his exploration.
  • 1513 Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.
  • 1519 Ferdinand Magellan began his exploration.

    [audio]Who's who in this chapter:

  • Hernando Cortes, a conquistador, conquered the Aztecs in Central America.
  • Francisco Pizarro, a conquistador, conquered the Incas in South America.
  • Captain John Smith became a successful leader in the Jamestown Colony.
  • Roger William and his followers created the Rhode Island Colony.