Cause and Effect

Bunker Hill  
The Battle of Bunker Hill

[audio] Two things led to the passing of the Intolerable Acts:

1. Britain thought that the colonists did not pay them enough taxes.
2. The colonists were angry about these taxes and protested.
By 1774 in Boston there was one British soldier for every four colonists. This made the colonists angry.

General Gage

  • General Gage, the British Governor in Massachusetts, was afraid the colonists would use the stockpiled weapons to kill British soldiers.
  • General Gage destroyed some of the colonist's stockpiled weapons. Britain hoped this would calm things down.
  • This made the colonists even angrier. The radical colonists decided they would protect the rest of their stockpiled weapons.

[audio] The British Army Goes to Lexington and Concord

  • The first fighting of the Revolutionary War happened at Lexington and Concord.
  • Casualty: soldiers who could not fight because of injury or death.
  • Britain had 269 casualties.
    The colonists had 49 dead; 34 wounded; 5 missing.
  • The colonists won the battles of Lexington and Concord.

The Continental Army

  • The colonists formed the Continental Army to fight the British.
  • Same as a colonial militia because it protected the colonists from British.
  • Different than a colonial militia by being made up of men from many different colonies.

The Battle of Breed's Hill (Bunker Hill)

  • The colonists hid on Breed's Hill so they could shoot at the British from a safe place.
  • General Gage's battle plan was that he thought he could scare away the colonists if he came with many, many soldiers.
  • The colonial battle plan was to hide behind log walls.
  • The effect of this battle on the British was that every time British soldiers got near, the colonists shot them.
  • The colonists ran out of bullets and gunpowder and lost the hill.
  • The British claimed victory because they won the hill.
  • The colonists claimed victory because they killed lots of British soldiers.

[audio] The Colonists Use a Different Type of Battle Tactic

  • The colonists used a new kind of battle tactic, wilderness fighting. This was one of the most effective colonial battle tactics.
  • Wilderness fighting: hit and run fighting where the colonists hid or snuck up on the enemies.

The effects of Saratoga

  • France didn't like Britain. Because the colonists won at Saratoga, France thought the Continental Army could win the war and decided to openly help the colonists fight. France and the colonies formed an alliance. Alliance: a deal between countries that says they will help each other.

The war in the southern colonies

  • The British army lost many troops in the southern colonies because when they were in the woods, the colonial militia fought them using hit and run tactics.
  • General Cornwallis took his British troops to Yorktown, Virginia to get supplies and more soldiers.
  • General Cornwallis hoped to be rescued in Yorktown by the British navy.
  • But the French navy beat the British navy and Cornwallis couldn't be rescued.
  • Cornwallis was trapped in Yorktown because he was surrounded by French and colonial troops.

[audio] Results

  • Because the British's leadership had training in military fighting tactics, they had the advantage in the beginning of the Revolutionary War. They also had an advantage because their army and navy had lots of equipment and the soldiers were trained.
  • The Intolerable Acts mainly affected the Massachusetts Colony, but leaders of other colonies thought King George would take away their right of self-government.
  • The Loyalists may have weakened Britain's war effort because they did not fight in Britain's army.
  • Neither the colonies nor Britain had the advantage in motivation because both sides faced opposition in their home countries.

The Treaty of Paris

  • The Treaty of Paris: the end of the Revolutionary War.
  • Two things happened because of the Treaty of Paris:
    1. The 13 Colonies became independent from Britain and became the USA.
    2. The USA got more land.
  • The new western boundary of the USA was the Mississippi River.