The Policies of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
- 5 government departments established by Congress:
- Department of State
Department of Treasury
Department of War
- The people who run the departments are the President's cabinet.
- The Cabinet helps the President by giving him advice.
A New Government in Debt
The size of the federal government
- A bond was a written promise that a person would be paid by Congress
in gold or silver. It was an IOU.
- Farmers, manufacturers, and soldiers were given bonds during
the Revolutionary War.
The problem with the Whiskey Tax
- Congress passed the whiskey tax so that the United States could
get more tax money to pay for the bonds.
- The Whiskey Tax seemed unfair to the small farmers because they
were the ones making and selling whiskey, which resulted in them
having to pay the tax.
- Alexander Hamilton's second policy, The Whiskey Tax, helped the
wealthy people more than it helped the ordinary people because the
wealthy weren't taxed as much as the ordinary.
The Alien and Sedition Acts
- John Adams ran in the Presidential election of 1796 and won.
- The party of the wealthy people did not feel comfortable having
the ordinary people run the country.
- The Alien Act required that immigrants
live in the Unites States for 14 years, instead of five, before
they could vote. Keeping the number of new immigrants from voting
would give the Federalist
party a better chance of getting voted into power.
- The First Amendment of the Bill of rights gives the newspapers
the right of freedom of speech.
- The Sedition Act would took away the newspaper's First Amendment
rights and keep the newspapers from criticizing the Federalist party.
This would help keep criticisms about the federalist party away
from the people.
How Andrew Jackson Dealt with Native Americans
Cherokee world views
- How the Cherokee and settler's
society were the same:
Both had American cultural customs.
Both could read and write using an alphabet.
Both took Christianity as their religion.
Both used democratic law and constitutions.
Many owned land.
- President Jackson did not use his power of the Presidency to carry
out the Supreme Courts ruling that Georgia could not take the land
of the Cherokee.
Policy of Indian removal
- Native Americans were forcibly removed from their lands in the
East and moved to reservations
on the Great Plains.
- The Policy of Indian Removal was supposed to end the fighting
over land between the settlers and the Native Americans.
- The move was more difficult for the Native Americans than it
would have been for the settlers because the Native Americans lived
on the land for centuries. Their religion, customs and living styles
were connected to their environment.
- The settlers had no ties to the land or environment. The Trail
of Tears was the forced removal of the Cherokee from their land
to a reservation west of the Mississippi River. They suffered from
starvation, poor weather,
little food and shelter and
cold temperatures. Many died.
- Political Parties are groups of people with the same ideas on
how to run the country.
- Political parties try to get the country to run their way.
The first political party
- Alexander Hamilton ran the only political party in 1789 which
was made up of rich business men, was a member of the Cabinet, and
helped write a paper called the Federalist.
- Ordinary people felt that the rich and educated were the best
people to lead the country and make decisions.
- Federal means a part of the government that has some control
over the states and makes and carries out laws for the country.
- The Federalist Party was able to control the government because
they were the wealthy businessmen who ran the political party at
- Thomas Jefferson was the Presidents Secretary of State who supported
those who didn't like the ideas of the wealthy businessmen's political
party. He believed that the federal government should protect individual
state's freedom but that it should not be involved in making business
The Policies of Alexander Hamilton and the Party of the Wealthy Business
Alexander Hamilton Wanted the Government to Pay Its Debts
- Hamilton thought the government should pay its debt so that the wealthy Americans would
be willing to loan money to the government in the future.
- Wealthy people thought the government would pay off the bonds
but others did not.
- The wealthy only offered the farmers10-15 cents for every dollar
promised on their bonds. The farmers took the money because they
thought it was better than nothing.
- A speculator tries
to make money by buying items that they believe will sell at a higher
price in the future. The wealthy were speculators.
- A speculator can make a lot of money when they sell something
at a higher price than they bought it.
- Ordinary people didn't want to increase taxes on imports to pay
off the bonds, because the speculators would make a lot of money
while they would lose money. This would only make the rich richer.
- Congress passed a law
in 1791 that made the government pay the full price of the bonds.
- One of Alexander Hamilton's policies helped the wealthy business
people (who owned the bonds) because they received the full price
for the bonds purchased from the ordinary people.
The Democratic Party and Andrew Jackson
How the Democratic Party was started and the problem with the
election of 1824
- Andrew Jackson won more votes in the 1824 election but John Quincy
Adams became the president.
- The ordinary people had a problem because a wealthy educated
man became President, and the wealthy did not look out for the interests
of the ordinary people.
- The solution--form a political party. The ordinary people formed
a new party called the Democratic Party.
The election of 1828
- The Whigs were supported by business people of the Northwest and
plantation owners of the South.
- Since many of the ordinary people didn't own land, the new law
that dropped the voting requirement for people to own land allowed
them to vote in the 1828 election.
- Andrew Jackson received more than enough votes to win the next
election for President as a result of the new law.