Cliff Notes for Chapter 13:
The Road to the Civil War


The following information was presented in this chapter:

The United States was experiencing a great amount of conflict. The North and the South were divided for their opinions on two major economic reasons: slavery and tariffs. The result was a struggle between the two for a balance of power in Congress where the laws were made. As compromise became increasingly difficult it looked as if war were inevitable.

  • Tariffs were introduced that taxed goods that were brought into the country. These included import tariffs, protective tariffs, and The Tariff of Abominations.
  • Overall these tariffs had more effect on the South than on the North so the southern people were extremely opposed to the tariffs.
  • President Andrew Jackson introduced a compromise solution in which both sides gave up a little bit on the issue of tariffs and conflict was avoided.
  • Sectional disagreements over slavery arose. The southern states believed in keeping slaves and the northern states believed in freedom for all. Since both sides had an equal number of states there was a balance of power in Congress.
  • The Missouri Compromise drew a line down the middle of the Louisiana territory and maintained the balance of power in congress.
  • The compromise of 1850 introduced California as a free state in the North, popular sovereignty for both sides, and a fugitive slave law for the South.
  • The fugitive slave law went against the beliefs of the Northerners and some became abolitionists who actively sought to free slaves
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act made it possible for slavery to spread.
  • The Dred Scott decision by the Supreme Court said that anyone could own slaves in a federal territory.
  • The Republican party was formed and wanted to stop the spread of slavery.
  • The Democratic party split into two groups, one in the North and one in the South, resulting in communication problems.

    Important dates to remember:

  • 1812 United States was at war with Britain.
  • 1819 Balance of power was equal with 11 states on each side.
  • 1850 Compromise of 1850.
  • 1857 Dred Scott decision by the Supreme Court.
  • 1854 The Republican party was formed.
  • 1856 The election of 1856 established Republican party as a force.
  • 1860 The election of 1860 ended hope of compromise

    Who's who in this chapter:

  • President Andrew Jackson introduced a compromise solution.
  • Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compromise.
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe and Harriet Tubman helped many slaves escape.
  • John Brown was a radical abolitionist.
  • Robert E. Lee led troops who captured John Brown.
  • Dred Scott was a slave who tried to sue in a federal court and lost.
  • Stephen Douglas wanted a new railroad going from Chicago to California.
  • James Buchanan was a northern Democrat who was favorable to the South.
  • John C.Fremont was the Republican candidate for President.
  • Abraham Lincoln was Republican who went on to be President.
  • John C. Brecknidge was a Democrat who lost the Presidential election.