Rights Problems of Native Americans
| Sitting Bull
- Lewis Cass, U.S. Secretary of War in the early 1800's, promised
the Native Americans that the government would not take their land.
However, many settlers did
move into their land, sometimes taking it by force. Consequently,
the Native Americans distrusted the whites.
- When they were placed on reservations,
Native Americans sometimes received annuities of food, such as corn,
flour, beef, sugar, and beans.
- The Indian Peace Commission thought that if Native American tribes
were disbanded and assimilated into the white culture, then mistreatment
might be able to be solved.
Native American responses to federal government
- Native Americans reacted to the loss of their land by forming
treaties or fighting the white
- The Navajo fought to defend their land from the settlers moving
into New Mexico and Arizona. Eventually, they agreed to go to a
reservation and the government gave them a large amount of land,
where they continued their customs.
- Geronimo and his followers kept fighting for their land. They
thought the Apache treaty would prevent them from keeping their
traditions. Eventually they were imprisoned in Florida, where many
of them died because of the foreign climate.
- The Colorado militia massacred
many Cheyenne people and Black Kettle. When gold was found, whites
became more eager to take their land.
- The Santee signed a treaty, which stated that the Federal government
would give them annuity payments. After the Civil War, the government
was slow in paying the promised money. Santee people were starving,
and they could not hunt on what used to be their land, so in 1862,
they raided nearby farms and killed settlers. Eventually, the Santee
were made to leave Minnesota.
- Gold was found on the Oglala Sioux land, and they fought to save
their land and preserve their people and traditions.
- At Custer's Last Stand, Crazy Horse and the Sioux fighters killed
Custer and his men.
- The Sioux lost to the U.S. Army, and Crazy Horse was killed. Sitting
Bull escaped to Canada, but eventually returned to the reservation.
The Ghost Dance
- Some Native Americans thought the Ghost Dance would accomplish
1) send the white people back to their own land,
2) bring ancestors to life,
3) make the Buffalo come back.
- The U.S. Army arrested Sitting Bull for spreading the Ghost Dance.
They killed him when the people rose to stop them.
- The massacre at Wounded Knee is important - it was the last time
the Native Americans on the Great Plains resisted the government.
Government Policy Toward Native Americans
- The army decided the treatment of the Native Americans during
the Civil War.
- After the war, missionaries
had increasing influence on their treatment.
Education of Native Americans
- The missionary run schools taught Native American children white
culture and religion.
- The government used the Dawes Act to try to make Native Americans
view land as something to own.
- They wanted people to be independent of their tribes, possessing
individual pieces of land.
- The tribes would not have land, government recognition, or control
over their people.
The last of the buffalo
- Native Americans got clothing, food, housing, fuel, medicine,
and tools from the Buffalo.
- The Native Americans went to the reservations largely because
they didn't have enough food, especially Buffalo.
- The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo promised to protect Mexican land
and grant citizenship.
- The White Cappers cut the fences put up by white farmers on the
- Smelters were plants that made metals such as gold and lead usable.
- The barrios were the areas where Mexicans lived after coming to
El Paso to work on the railroad or in the smelters.
- In San Antonio, many Mexican-Americans worked on the railroads
or in factories, especially in meat packing, food processing, or
Battles between U.S. government and Native Americans
Santee raided nearby farms, fought the U.S. army.
Santee forced to leave Minnesota.
Little Crow is killed.
Massacre of Cheyenne by the Colorado Militia.
Black Kettle killed.
Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull gather many warriors, fight
in Battle of Little Big Horn, or Custer's Last Stand.
Custer is killed, Crazy Horse killed, Sitting Bull escapes
to Canada, surrenders years later.
Massacre at Wounded Knee - Last Native American resistance
on the Great Plains.
Sitting Bull killed.