INDUSTRIALIZATION-The growth of an economy in which most people change from farm work to factory work. Manufacturing of products requires centralized natural resources.

  • The U.S. changed from 1800 to 1860 going from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy. This started in the North.
  • Coal mining and production of war supplies increased in the North during the Civil War.
  • South did not increase in these things because the North stopped the supplies from coming to them.


1800 Farming
1890 Manufacturing or transportation


Green Bay-Western locomotive #15, circa 1879

Number of people: After the Civil War the U.S. grew very fast. More people immigrated to work in the factories. The U.S. became a very large country with lots of people. It became completely industrialized.

Manufactured iron
Factory machines making shoes
Manufactured textiles

  • Inventions- A patent is a legal document that gives 1 person or group the right to make, sell, and use an invention.
  • Machinists were people who made and repaired the new machines. They also found new ways to use metals.
Control train traffic
Air brakes Stop train cars
Cable Quick telegraph messages from the U.S. to Europe
Typewriter Standard script
Labor saving machines Corn husker, & corn sheller
New types of wheat Didn't get common diseases


  • 1856...Telegraph
  • 1876...Telephone
  • 1895...Wireless telegraph


  • 1853...Corn Planters
  • 1860...Combine


  • 1874...Electric street car
  • 1896...U.S. gas powered car

Ease of Living

  • 1879...Electric lights
  • 1888...Electric motors


  • 1850...Interchangeable parts
  • 1851...Sewing machine
  • 1873...Use of electricity to run machines Factories could not make products using unique parts, in which each one is one of a kind. It is the opposite of interchangeable parts.

The problems with making products out of unique parts is that it takes a long time, which means more labor for the workers, the product would be hard to fix if it broke, and would cost more as a result. Samuel Colt was the first to use interchangeable parts. Interchangeable parts could make products less expensive because the parts are all the same price and the labor was less work, which means less money.

A new way to assemble products.

  • 1850's some products took a long time to assemble, such as the reaper because: it had lots of parts, was very large, and required great amount of labor.
  • The assembly line was very quick because every worker had one part to put on. They had the part in front of them. They knew where the part was to be placed. Then they would pass the product on to the next worker who would put on the next part until the product was completed.

Factories depended upon efficiency.

  • Fred Taylor, an engineer, studied the movements workers made to assemble products, the study of "time and motion."
  • He believed the motions could be simplified so the workers could assemble products more quickly.
  • Taylor designed new shovels to shovel iron ore. With the new shovels 140 men could do the work of 600 men.
  • One of the best examples of the assembly line was at Henry Ford's car factory. The unfinished car would move from worker to worker on a conveyer belt until the car was finished.

    Increased production resulted from interchangeable parts and the assembly line greatly increased the industrial production of northern factories, bringing more money to the U.S.

Manufactured products were valued at:

1860 $2 billion, or $65 per person
1890 $10 billion, or $160 per person


  • Mass production, used interchangeable parts and assembly lines to manufacture enormous amounts of products.
  • Mass Production put many small family owned factories and small manufacturers out of business because they could not afford the big machinery and were not as quick and efficient as the big factories.

Businesses Increased in number and size

  • Steel and Railroads became the two leading industries of the U.S. in 1890.
  • Large Manufacturing businesses began to control the U.S. industry, overpowering some farming and small family businesses.