Cliff Notes for Chapter 19:
Workers and Farmers Attempt to Solve Their Problems


The following information was presented in this chapter:

Industrialization during the late 1800s greatly and rapidly changed the U.S. At the same time, the change brought most workers and farmers the people's rights problems. Workers and farmers tried to solve these problems through cooperation by organizing the unions and striking. However, they couldn't beat big business owners as their disadvantages were shown in all four measures of success.

  • First major change in the U.S. brought by industrialization was a population shift from rural areas to cities.
  • Second major change was an increase in the size of the economic middle class.
  • Third major change was an increase in the size and interdependency of the economy.
  • Two kinds of problems most workers had were low wages and unsafe working conditions.
  • Most farmers had serious economic problems.


Important dates to remember:

  • 1886 The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was formed.
  • 1905 National Labor Union (NLU) was formed.
  • 1905 Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) began.
  • 1906 Knights of Labor was formed.

    Who's who in this chapter:

  • James Weaver was selected as a presidential candidate from Populist Party in 1892.
  • Terrance Powderly was a leader of a national union called the Knights of Labor.
  • Samuel Gompers headed the American Federation of Labor.
  • Grover Cleveland was President from Democratic Party during the depression.
  • William Jennings Bryan was a presidential candidate from Democratic Party in 1896. Although Bryan won nearly every southern and western state, William McKinley won the election earning votes from heavily populated North.