Cause and Effect

  Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
[audio] The Effects of the Progressive Era

Limits to Big Business Regulation

  • W. E. B. DuBois was an African-American college professor at Atlanta University who decided to organize to fight against discrimination.
  • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) tried to help African-Americans by using the courts. With the help of African-American and white lawyers, they filed cases to challenge segregation and discrimination.

Native Americans and Mexican Americans

  • Educated Native Americans formed the Society of American Indians (SAI) in 1911 to solve the problems of education, health care, and discrimination.
  • They had few successes in solving these problems and the association fell apart in the early 1920's. It wasn't until 1934 that the government attempted to improve the worsening conditions of Native Americans.
  • Mexican Americans did no better than Native Americans during the Progressive Era.
  • No organized groups were working to improve their standard of living or working conditions, and the federal government ignored this group.

[audio] Examples of Democratic Process Successes


  • Prohibition is the idea that the production and sale of alcoholic beverages should not be permitted
  • At first, those who wanted alcohol banned were middle class women who lived in rural areas. They believed drinking made men lose their jobs and leave their families, becoming violent.
  • 1869 - the Prohibition Party was organized in many states, hoping candidates who favored prohibition were elected.
  • 1874 - a different group formed to work just at the local and state levels. This group was called the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU).
  • 1895 - the Prohibition Party and the WCTU formed a coalition called the Anti-Saloon League. They took action at the state and federal levels.
  • 1913 - Anti-Saloon League members pressured the federal government to forbid the shipment of alcohol to any state that had laws against the sale of alcohol.
  • 1916 - almost 60% of the American population lived in states that prohibited the sale of alcohol.
  • 1917 - The 18th Amendment made the sale and manufacture of alcohol illegal everywhere in the U.S.

[audio] Woman's suffrage

  • Suffrage is the right to vote.
  • When the constitution was written it said nothing about women having the right to vote. Prior to the Progressive Era, a group called the Women's Loyalty League had worked unsuccessfully at getting suffrage for women at the national level.
  • After the Civil War, the Women's Loyalty League formed the National Women Suffrage Association. It was led by Susan. B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton. These associations worked to pass the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments.
  • The National American Women's Suffrage Association continued to pressure the federal government to pass a national law giving women the right to vote.
  • 1912 - 1919 western states had allowed women to vote in state and local elections.
  • 1920 - after much campaigning by women, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified. It gave women the right to vote in all elections.

The role of women

  • Between 1880 and 1900 the role of women changed greatly.
  • The number of women working outside the home nearly tripled.
  • As the need for clerical jobs increased, women began doing clerical work that had been done by men in the past.
  • The number of women working in offices increased from just 4% of total office workers to nearly 50%.
  • Women also joined unions in some industries.
  • The women who led the movement to gain suffrage called themselves feminists.
  • The increasing number of women in universities and the workplace produced leaders for a feminist movement. Ideas such as equal pay for equal work, and the opening of all professions to women were part of the feminist movement.