Cause and Effect
of the Progressive Era
|Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Limits to Big Business Regulation
- W. E. B. DuBois was an African-American college professor at Atlanta
University who decided to organize to fight against discrimination.
- The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) tried to help African-Americans by using the courts. With
the help of African-American and white lawyers, they filed cases
to challenge segregation
Native Americans and Mexican Americans
- Educated Native Americans formed the Society of American Indians
(SAI) in 1911 to solve the problems of education, health care, and
- They had few successes in solving these problems and the association
fell apart in the early 1920's. It wasn't until 1934 that the government
attempted to improve the
worsening conditions of Native Americans.
- Mexican Americans did no better than Native Americans during
the Progressive Era.
- No organized groups were working to improve their standard of
living or working conditions, and the federal government ignored
Examples of Democratic Process Successes
- Prohibition is the idea that the production and sale of alcoholic
beverages should not be permitted
- At first, those who wanted alcohol banned were middle class women
who lived in rural areas. They believed drinking made men lose their
jobs and leave their families, becoming violent.
- 1869 - the Prohibition Party was organized in many states, hoping
candidates who favored prohibition were elected.
- 1874 - a different group formed to work just at the local and
state levels. This group was called the Women's Christian Temperance
- 1895 - the Prohibition Party and the WCTU formed a coalition called
the Anti-Saloon League. They took action at the state and federal
- 1913 - Anti-Saloon League members pressured the federal government
to forbid the shipment of alcohol to any state that had laws against
the sale of alcohol.
- 1916 - almost 60% of the American population lived in states that
prohibited the sale of alcohol.
- 1917 - The 18th Amendment made the sale and manufacture of alcohol
illegal everywhere in the U.S.
- Suffrage is the right to vote.
- When the constitution was written it said nothing about women
having the right to vote. Prior to the Progressive Era, a group
called the Women's Loyalty League had worked unsuccessfully at getting
suffrage for women at the national level.
- After the Civil War, the Women's Loyalty League formed the National
Women Suffrage Association. It was led by Susan. B. Anthony and Elizabeth
Stanton. These associations worked to pass the 13th, 14th, and 15th
- The National American Women's Suffrage Association continued to
pressure the federal government to pass a national law giving women
the right to vote.
- 1912 - 1919 western states had allowed women to vote in state and
- 1920 - after much campaigning
by women, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified. It
gave women the right to vote in all elections.
The role of women
- Between 1880 and 1900 the role of women changed greatly.
- The number of women working outside the home nearly tripled.
- As the need for clerical
jobs increased, women began doing clerical work that had been done
by men in the past.
- The number of women working in offices increased from just 4%
of total office workers to nearly 50%.
- Women also joined unions in some industries.
- The women who led the movement to gain suffrage called themselves
- The increasing number of women in universities and the workplace
produced leaders for a feminist movement. Ideas such as equal pay
for equal work, and the opening of all professions
to women were part of the feminist movement.