Accommodation, and Imperialism
- Domination is used when dealing with another country that has
a weaker economy and a weaker military.
- Accommodation is necessary when dealing with a country that has
an equally strong economy and military.
- Imperialism occurs when the people of a strong nation dominate
the people of a weak nation, denying people in the weak nation the
freedom to make their own decisions about economic and political
States in Latin America
Domination and Accommodation in South America
The Monroe Doctrine
- 1820s - the U.S. government was worried that Spain might try to
reclaim some of its lost territory,
particularly the Louisiana territory. President Monroe declared that
the U.S. would not tolerate any European country getting involved
in any part of North or South America.
- This declaration was known as the Monroe Doctrine which was not
a treaty or an agreement with other countries. It was a statement
by the United States that the U.S. would not allow European countries
to expand their control over territory in Latin America.
- The British navy did not want European countries to get more influence
over Latin America. Fear of the British navy kept France and Spain
from trying to do so.
Crisis with France
- The U.S. wanted France to leave Mexico because they did not want
a European nation to control a country that bordered the U.S.
- The U.S. got France to leave Mexico because they insisted that
the French leave or face a possible war. France decided that fighting
an overseas battle with both the Mexicans and the Americans would
be too hard and pulled their troops out of Mexico.
Crisis in Chile
- The U.S. supported the President of Chile during the revolution
there. When the President of Chile lost control of the government,
many people in Chile were angry with the U.S. for supporting him.
When the U.S. ships came ashore in Chile, a riot
broke out and two American sailors were killed. Chile did not want
to apologize for these deaths until the U.S. president said he might
consider going to war with Chile. They apologized
and sent money to the families of the deceased.
Crisis in Venezuela
- 1895 - a dispute between
Venezuela and Great Britain gave the U.S. a chance to demonstrate
its influence in the Americas.
- The dispute was about the location of the border between Venezuela
and British Guinea.
- The U.S. helped solve the problem.
The Spanish-American War
- 1898 - the U.S. fought a brief war with Spain
- Spain's influence changed during the 1800s because countries such
as Mexico, Peru,Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, fought successful
wars of independence
- The U.S. became the largest importer of Cuban sugar in 1894, importing
over 1 million tons.
- 1890s - America wanted to go to war with Spain because Spain had
sent troops to Cuba to stop them from gaining independence and in
the process had killed many Cubans and Americans living in Cuba.
- 1898 - two events increased the desire of Americans to go to war
(1) The publication in
a New York newspaper of a letter from the Spanish ambassador
to a friend in Cuba in which the Spanish ambassador had accused
President McKinley of being weak. This angered the President and
the American public.
(2) The sinking of the U.S. battleship, Maine, which had gone to
Cuba to protect American citizens there. On Feb.15, 1898 an explosion
occurred on the Maine, killing 260 American sailors.
- Reasons why some businessmen wanted a war with Spain:
(1) They thought a war would help the U.S. economy recover from
the depression that had
started in 1893.
(2) Some wanted Spain out of Cuba in order to make it easier for
American companies to do business with Cuba.
- The policy of the United States toward Spain used domination.
Cuba and the Philippines were supposed to gain independence after
the Spanish-American war.
- Puerto Rico was supposed to be turned over to the control of the
Post-war Relations with Cuba
- 1901 - Platt Amendment
- This amendment stated that the U.S. would send troops into Cuba if
the new Cuban government was unable to protect life and property.
- The Cubans were told that their constitution
must include provisions stating
(1) could not enter into any agreement with a foreign power that could
endanger its independence
(2) would give the right to the U.S. to intervene
in Cuba if the Cuban government had problems
(3) would lease a naval base at Guantanamo Bay to the U.S.
- American troops started a revolution in Cuba in 1906 and remained
in Cuba until 1909.
Domination in the Caribbean
- 1904 - President Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the
Monroe Doctrine. It basically said that the U.S. would act as a
policeman in Latin America.
U.S. Control of Puerto Rico
- Puerto Rico was made a territory of the U.S. because the Teller
Amendment had stated that Cuba would not become a territory of the
United States, but it never said anything about Puerto Rico.
Haiti and the Dominican Republic
- Caribbean countries where the U.S. intervened during the early
1900s: Haiti & Dominican Republic.
Domination in Central America and Mexico
- Dollar diplomacy is a phrase which referred to actions taken to
protect American business interests in these foreign countries.
The Panama Canal
- 1860s - there had been talk of building a canal across the narrowest
part of Central America that would enable ships to pass from the Atlantic
Ocean to the Pacific Ocean without going around South America.
- The U.S. was interested in building a canal across Central America
because it would save time and ships could make more trips, which
meant more products could be sold and businesses could earn more
- Isthmus is a narrow strip of land that connects two larger pieces
- The 2 possible routes for a canal across Central America were:
(1) Across Nicaragua
(2) Across the Isthmus of Panama
- Roosevelt encouraged
the people in Panama to declare independence from Colombia because
he did not want to take the chance that a revolution in Colombia
would stop the U.S. from building a canal.
- The U.S. ensured that Panama would be independent by sending American
warships to defend them from Colombian troops. Roosevelt offered
Panama the same terms that he had offered Colombia, which was $10
million for the right to build the canal and $250,000 a year as
"rent" for the Canal Zone.
- 1914 - the Panama Canal was completed
U.S. Relations with Mexico
- The U.S. relationship with Mexico was important because of Mexico's
large population and its long border with the U.S.
- 1911 - a revolution led by different Mexican groups forced the
Mexican dictator to resign.
- Pancho Villa and Emilliano Zapata, who were rebel
leaders, wanted to get the United States to get involved in the
war and make it look like the U.S. was supporting the Mexican government.
- 1916 - Villa stopped a train in Northern Mexico and executed
16 Americans. When the U.S. did not invade Mexico, Villa attacked
the town of Columbus, New Mexico, and killed 19 Americans.
- In response to these attacks, President Wilson sent an army of
6,500 men into Mexico to capture
Pancho Villa. The U.S. was about to go to war with Germany, and
Wilson needed his army back in the U.S., so he called back his army
- 1900s - many Mexicans left Mexico to settle in the U.S. because
of the disorder and poverty
due to Zapata and Villa.
States in the Pacific
- The Asian countries and islands in the Pacific became important
to the U.S. because those islands could be used as naval bases and
refueling stations for ships traveling across the Pacific.
Domination in the Philippines
- After the Spanish-American war, the peace treaty specified that
the Philippines were supposed to become independent.
- Filipino leaders became angry at the U.S. because the Americans
refused to allow Filipino leaders to form their own government after
the Spanish-American war.
- 1902 - The United States had to ensure that the Philippine legislature
wouldn't pass laws that hurt American business. They passed an act
that stated how the Philippines would be governed. It would have
(1) one part appointed by
the U.S. President
(2) one part elected by the Filipino people
Domination of Hawaii
- The two main economies in Hawaii during the 1800s were whaling and
- Hawaii was important for shipping because it was half way between
the U.S. and Asia.
- The Hawaiian sugar plantation
owners wanted Hawaii to become part of the U.S. so they could sell
their products without the tariffs.
- Congress allowed Hawaii
to become a U.S. territory because after the Spanish-American war,
the supply of sugar from Cuba stopped, and they needed sugar from
Purchase of Alaska
- 1867 - Alaska was controlled by Russia. Russia offered to sell
Alaska to the U.S. for just over $7 million.
- William Seward, the Secretary of State, bought Alaska for the
United States. Alaska became known as Seward's folly because everyone
thought it was a foolish purchase.
- Reasons why Seward wanted to purchase Alaska:
(1) He thought this was a possible way to convince Canada to become
part of the U.S.
(2) He thought Alaska would provide closer ports to China.
Domination and Accommodation in China
- Americans and Europeans were interested in China because the great
population of China was seen as a great potential
market for the sale of European and American manufactured goods.
- Spheres of influence are countries that made agreements that each
nation would have control over the trade with certain parts of China.
- The Open Door Notes declared that the U.S. reserved the right
to trade at all ports and that no government should interfere with
the rights of the Chinese government in these ports.
The Boxer Rebellion
- Boxers - an organization called the Righteous and Harmonious Fists,
which taught its members the art of Chinese boxing and religious
rituals to prepare fighters for battle. The organization was referred
to by westerners as Boxers.
- 1900 - the Boxers attacked Chinese government officials and Chinese
who converted to Christianity.
The Boxers managed to isolate
embassies of foreign governments.
This caused European countries and America to send troops.
Accommodation with Japan
- 1854 - Matthew C. Perry, American Commander, took his navy to
Japan and forced the Japanese to begin trading with the U.S.
- Japan was the most powerful Asian country in the late 1800s.
- 1904-1905 - Japan fought a war with Russia. A peace conference
was called, in which U.S. President Roosevelt served as a mediator.
Agreements were reached:
a. Japan was given control over the disputed
b. The U.S. agreed not to interfere with Japan's actions in Korea
and Manchuria. Japan agreed not to interfere with the U.S. interests
in the Philippines.