The Election of 1932
- People didn't trust big businesses because they caused many people
to lose money and jobs. People didn't trust the Republican Party because
they thought that the Republican Party represented these large businesses.
Hoover was very unpopular.
Franklin Delanor Roosevelt
- Franklin Roosevelt was paralyzed by polio.
The election campaign
- Both Hoover and Roosevelt thought that the government and businesses
needed to work together to end the depression.
They both thought that the government should not spend more money
than it earned.
- Roosevelt thought that the government should provide a lot of
help to the people. It should make sure that there were jobs for
- Hoover wanted less government involvement. He thought people should
be self- dependent.
- Some business leaders thought that Roosevelt was a socialist.
They thought he was taking power away from them.
- Some Labor union leaders didn't trust Roosevelt. They thought
that the unions, not the government, should find jobs for the workers.
- While some people compared Roosevelt to Hitler and Stalin, their
ideas were different. Roosevelt wanted the American public to be in
charge of the economy. He wanted political officials to compromise.
- Hitler and Stalin wanted permanent
control over economy and society. They were used to running violent
Pressure to do more
- The Agricultural Adjustment Act gave money to owners of big farms,
but not as much to small farm workers and owners.
- Pension is money paid to a person who has met set requirements.
- Huey Long's organization wanted incomes over $1 million to be
highly taxed. Long wanted inheritances
over $5 million to be greatly taxed, as well. The taxes would help
to make sure everyone had a home and an income of $2500.
- Roosevelt's reporters worried that if Long ran for President,
he would win votes that would have would have gone to Roosevelt.
- Huey Long was assassinated
Pressure to do less
- While some business people disagreed with Roosevelt, they didn't
protest because many people blamed them for the depression.
- Businessmen objections of Roosevelt:
1)Taxes too high
2) Government spending too much
3) Roosevelt supported the union too much
- Many justices on the Supreme
Court had been appointed by pro-business presidents. Justices thought
that government must not interfere with businesses.
- The Supreme Court said that many of the New Deal programs were
(i.e., the National Industrial Recovery Act and the Agricultural
- More New Deal Legislation was needed because the Supreme Court
had ended some of the previous measures. Roosevelt felt that America
still needed help getting out of the depression.
The Election of 1936
- The people who had suffered most from the Depression supported
Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. Small farmers, city
dwellers, and union members
followed Roosevelt, as did many Democratic southerners.
Packing the court
- Roosevelt wanted to make sure that the Supreme Court did not
declare the second New Deal programs unconstitutional. He wanted
to put more justices on the Supreme Court who thought as he did.
- Both Republicans and Democrats thought that Roosevelt's plan to
"pack the court" would give him too much power.
- Many justices retired from the Supreme Court, so Roosevelt was
able to appoint seven new justices. The court started to support
New Deal laws.
The End of the Second New Deal
- After 1938, there were no more new New Deal laws because
1) Roosevelt's popularity was lessening, legislators were stopping
2) Roosevelt wanted Congress's support because he knew that there
might be a war in Europe. He didn't want to pressure Congress with
New Deal bills.