A-H | I-P | Q-Z | Table of Contents
A through H
abolish- stop; put an end to.
abolitionists- people who wanted slavery to be abolished (stopped).
accommodate- when people change how they think or what they do when they have a problem that they are unable to solve in a more desired way.
accomplish- reach; achieve; bring to pass.
accuse- charge with guilty or blame.
adhere- become joined; stick fast.
administration- a group of people who are in charge of making many important decisions.
advertise- the way to increase the sale of products or services through commercial on radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, or other.
advocate- support; be on one's side.
affect- influence; make a change on.
Age of Exploration- the period of time when Europeans were exploring new land.
aggressive- a state that is likely to attack others or be hostile.
allegiance- the obligation of a person to his/her state or government.
alliance- an agreement between people or nations that states they will help each other.
allies- nations associating and cooperating with each other by an agreement.
ambassador- a person with the highest rank in dealing with diplomacy (relating with other countries).
amendment- formal written change to a document, such as the U.S. Constitution.
ammunition- materials used in discharging firearms.
ancestor- a person who is descended (grandmother, grand-grand-father, etc.).
annex/annexation- attaching a smaller land to a larger land.
annuity- yearly payment.
apologize- offer an excuse; express sorrow.
appoint- fix; write.
apprentice- a young person learning a skill from a master craftsman.
assassin- a person who assassinated (killed violently and secretly) someone.
assassinate- kill violently and secretly.
assemble- to put together.
assembly- an event that people meet together for a purpose.
assert- state as true; declare.
astonishment- shock; surprise; struck with wonder.
astrolabe- an instrument that allowed sailors to measure latitude.
atomic bomb- extremely powerful bomb using nuclear fission.
attract- draw toward.
available- a condition of being able to use something.
Aztecs- American native people of ancient Mexico.
ballot- a ticket or other device for marking an individual vote; the total number of votes are recorded by this.
bankrupt- a condition of not having enough money to pay off debts.
barbed wire- wire with spikes or hooked points.
barges- large flat bottom boats that carry goods and products place to place.
beneficial- receiving advantage, use, or benefit.
benefit- to be helpful; easy to get a profit.
bill of rights- a list of people's rights that a government agrees all people will have.
biome- an area with a similar climate, plants, and animals.
blaze- make (a trail) and announce it publicly.
blockade- closing off of a place with military to control people who enter or exit.
Border States- 5 states that are on the border between the North and South during the Civil War (Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia).
Boston Massacre- an event in which British army soldiers stationed in Boston killed colonial protesters.
boundary- something that marks a limit; border.
boycott- a condition that a group of people refuse to buy certain goods or services to influence a government or a business to make change.
bribe- money paid to a person to get him/her to do something dishonest.
bulky- large in volume.
burden- things that are difficult to do.
campaign- a series of activities for some purpose such as election to public office.
candidate- one that aspires to or is nominated or qualified for an office.
capability- the ability of a group of people to do certain things.
captives- prisoners; those who were captured (got caught).
Cabot, John- an English explorer who sailed to America in 1497 looking for a trade route to Asia.
caravel- a small, fast sailing ship that could sail into the wind.
cash crops- crops or animals raised to be sold.
casualty- a soldier who cannot fight because of wounds, injury, sickness, or death.
cavalry- an army component mounted on horseback.
cease- stop doing an action.
censor- judge critically on the publication, communications, etc.
checks and balances- each branch of the government has the power to either stop or participate in actions by the other two branches.
Cherokee- a Native American tribe who lived in the state of Georgia.
clad- dressed; clothed.
clerical- relating to office work.
climate- the typical weather in an area over a long period of time.
cohesive- agreeable; consistent; a state that people agree and work together.
collapse- fail; break down.
colonial- of colonies.
combine- join; unite.
commander-in-chief- the person in change of the entire armed forces.
commercialize- to set up a business or company to make a profit.
commercial manufacturing- making goods and supplies to sell to others.
communist- political party or government that believes in communism (theory that the common people should own all the property).
compromise- settlement of a difference of opinion in which both sides agree to give up a part of its demands.
Confederate States of America [or Confederacy; South]- 11 southern states that broke away from the U.S. and formed their own country.
confederation- several different tribes or nations that agree to meet regularly to make important decisions.
conflict- clash, a situation in which two sides of people cannot stay happily together due to their differences in actions, beliefs, opinions, etc.
congress- a formal meeting for discussion; U.S. Congress.
conquer- overcome/dominate completely by force.
conquistador- "conquerors" in Spanish; Spaniards who conquered lands in Central and South America.
consequence- effect that follows as a result of some cause.
conserve- preserve; keep.
constitution- a written plan of government.
construct- build; make.
consumer- a person who uses economic goods.
Continental Army- the army of the 13 Colonies.
contribute- give with others; have a share.
convention- a formal meeting.
convince- cause a person to believe; persuade.
corrupt- becoming dishonest with bribes.
cotton gin- a nickname of cotton engine (machine to clean cotton); it increased the demand for slave labor as an unintended effect.
cultivator- plowing machine.
cultural- the way of life of a group of people.
curtail- cut short.
custom- usual practice or habit; tradition.
debate- an organized, public argument for and against a certain idea.
debt- money people owed to someone.
Declaration of Independence- the statement of the reasons why the 13 Colonies should be separate from Britain.
declare- state; say.
decent- good enough; fair.
demand- people's desire for a product or service.
deport- force a person to leave somewhere.
depression- a bad economy period when companies decrease production and many people lose their jobs.
deprive- take away; prevent from possessing.
descendant- a person descended from his or her older generations.
desert- leave the army without permission.
desire- strong wants.
destine- decide beforehand; having a destiny.
destructive- destroying; causing damage.
dictator- a person who has total power for making every decision in a country.
dictatorial- commanded by dictator (a person who has total power for making every decision in a country).
disburse- pay out; expend.
discrimination- judge and treat people differently depending on their race, class, sex, etc.
disgrace- shame; loss of one's pride.
dimension- measure in one direction (length, breadth, thickness, etc.).
dispute- a state of having a disagreement; argument.
disrupt- to interrupt; to break apart.
distribute- to divide up among several or many; to spread out.
double jeopardy- A promise the people cannot be found guilty if they have already been found not guilty of the same crime.
dominate- a situation in which one group has control over another.
dominion- control; highest authority.
due process- any U.S. citizens people's rights cannot be taken unless having a proper law process.
dweller- a person who lives in certain place; resident.
economic- having the process of producing, buying, and selling goods and services.
efficient- to produce, make, or bring about without waste, extra expense, time, or labor.
eligible- fit to be chosen.
eliminate- get rid of; remove; omit.
Emancipation Proclamation - President Lincoln's speech that freed the slaves in the land controlled by the North given on September 22, 1863.
embargo- a ban on trade with another country or group of countries.
embassy- headquarter that an ambassador and his/her staff work.
emerge- show up; come up.
enact- to make into a law.
enclosure- to turn land for crops into pasture land for animals.
encourage- promote; suggest; inspire.
enforce- put or keep in force.
engrave- carve in a wood, metal, or stone; cut in.
enthusiasm- excitement; strong interest.
erosion- washing or wearing away the surface of the earth.
escalate- to keep increasing.
essential- necessary; cannot function without.
establish- fix; create; set up.
ethnic- classification of a large group of people based on common traits and customs.
evolution- scientific theory that all animals and plants can have continuous change to adopt to their environment.
exchange- give in return for something else.
execute- put to death.
expansion- the act of increasing, making larger, as in the size of a country.
expertise- the possession of great knowlede.
exports- trade goods that are sold to another country or colony.
famine- a condition with extreme lack of food; starvation (dying of hunger).
favorable- having more advantage.
Federalists- the people who wanted the U.S. to have a strong federal government.
fertilizer- chemical used by farmers that is put on the soil to improve plant growth.
finance- to deal with money including spending, credit, resources, profit, etc.
financial- relating to finance.
fleet- an organized group of ships.
flog- beat or whip as punishment.
forbid- prohibit; order not to be done.
forclose- to legally take over the property of the person who rented because money owed has not been repaid.
fort- a place that is strongly defended by military.
frontier- a part of a country that is next to the unsettled region.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850- a law that stated that U.S. government could help slave owners or their slave catchers to get back the escaped slaves.
geographic- having the surface features of an area, such as mountains, valleys, and rivers.
ghetto- an area of a city that is often rundown.
Ghost Dance- a ceremony with dance done by Native American tribes (started by Wovoka and Paiute in Nevada).
govern- control; rule.
governor- a person who controls a certain place.
guidance- to direct, guide, show a way.
harmonious- agreeing and pleasing each other when people are staying together.
harrow- a farming equipment that used to break up clods with iron teeth.
harshness- being hard; rough to the senses.
Hessians- soldiers from an area in Germany called Hesse-Cassel, who were hired by the British to fight against the colonists during the Revolutionary War.
historian- a person who studies or writes about history.
Homestead Act- a law for getting people to move to the Great Plains and the Northwest.
House of Representatives- the House of Congress with representation based on population.
I through P
immigrant- a person who comes to a country from another country to live permanently.
immigration- the actual movement from one country to another.
immunity- a strength that human has to protect from diseases.
impeach- to present formal charges against an elected official (especially, President), accusing that person of misconduct in office.
imports- trade goods brought into a colony or country from another country.
impose- put; lay on.
improvement- the act of making things better.
Incas- American native people of ancient Peru.
independence- ruling, guiding, or governing oneself; free of rule by any other government.
industry- a large system in which products, or goods, are manufactured or made in a systematic and mechanical method.
inevitable- unavoidable; sure to come or happen.
inflation- an increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods and services resulting in a continuing rise in the general price level.
inhabit- live or dwell in.
inheritance- person's belongings.
inspect - check.
inspire- influence; stimulate to make people do something.
interaction- meeting difference and acting on each other or one another.
intercept- pick up the secret information off the radio.
interchangeable parts- parts that are the same in each product.
interdependent- when two or more depend on each other.
interfere- interrupt other's business.
interpret- show the meaning of; explain.
intervene- interfere (interrupt other's business).
intolerable- unbearable; too much to be endured.
invade- to enter as an enemy.
invention- to discover or create something new.
investigate- study and examine in detail.
irrigate- to bring water for crops from somewhere else through man-made ditches and canals.
isolate- place apart; separate from others.
Jeffersonians- persons who believed in the ideas of Thomas Jefferson. He wanted the U.S. to be a country with many small farms but not much big business.
judgemental- make a critical decision depending on one's own opinion.
jury- a group of 12 citizens who stay in a trial and decide if the accused person is guilty or not guity.
justice- judge (a person who makes the final decision) at the Supreme Court.
labor- the services performed by workers in return for wages.
landforms- the natural features of the earth's surface (rivers, mountains, oceans, etc.).
landowners- people who own land.
latitude- the distance of a point on the earth's surface from the equator (a line that divides the earth into equal two parts).
leadership- the skill or expertise of a group's leaders.
lease- get a land, building, car, etc. by paying fixed amount of money.
legislature- a group of people elected to make the laws for a government.
leisure- spare time; freedom from working.
life-threatening- being in danger of losing life.
likelihood- probability; possibility.
literacy- the ability to read and write.
livestock- cattle; useful domestic animals.
loan- to lend something.
loathsome- hateful; disgusting.
Louisiana Purchase- an event in 1803 that the US bought the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from France.
loyalty- being faithful.
lure- draw toward something. attract.
luxuries- items that you do not need to live, but enjoy having.
Magna Carta- an agreement forced on the English King John in 1215 to limit his power.
malaria- a transmittable disease that causes high fevers.
Manifest Destiny- the belief that the U.S. has a right and responsibility to expand its land.
manipulate- influence; control.
manufacture- to make things either by hand or with machines.
massacre- to kill hundreds of people.
mass culture- behaviors that are common among a group of people because they listen to or watch the same events.
master craftsman- person who was skilled at making special products like wagons or rifles.
mechanical reaper- a machine that helped to harvest grain.
mediator- someone who helps opposing groups to reach an agreement.
merchant- a person who buys and sells products or services.
messengers- people who pass the information.
militia- local military group to protect people.
missionary- one sent to spread his religion or philosophy in a foreign land.
mobs- a large number of ordinary people.
modernize- become modern (the present or recent time).
Montezuma- the Aztec's leader.
moral- knowing right from wrong behavior.
multiple perspectives- different ways of looking at the same event.
motivation- a desire to succeed.
multiple perspectives- different ways of looking at the same event.
Muslims- people who believe in the religion called Islam.
National Anthem- national song.
naturalize- admit to citizenship.
natural resources- raw materials from the earth used in manufacturing to make finished products and goods.
Navigation Acts- a series of trade laws designed to help Britain by controlling the colonies.
neutral- taking neither side in a war, quarrel, or dispute.
noble- of high birth, rank, or title.
nominate- propose for election.
nullify- to make a law no longer in effect.
oath- a formal statement, promise, or swearing with God as witness.
occasional- occurring now and then; sometimes.
occupy- take up and fill the space, time, attention, etc.
Olive Branch Petition- the colonists' request that the king repeal the Intolerable Acts.
optimistic- being positive and hopeful toward the future.
ore- a mineral or rock that has metals.
overproduction- producing certain products or services too much.
overthrow- defeat; knock down.
ownership- right of possession.
Parliament- legislative assembly in countries such as Great Britain.
patent- a legal document that gives just one person or group the right to make, use, or sell an invention.
patronage- hiring people because of their friendship not because of their ability.
people's rights problems- when people do not have basic rights.
permanent- lasting, fixed.
persecuted- harassed/having a hard time because of one's religion.
persuade- make person to agree with your point; convince.
perspective- way of seeing things; viewpoint.
petition- a formal written statement to government, requesting a change.
petroleum- unrefined oil got from the earth; oil that creates useful fuels.
philosophic- about personal belief and attitude on lives.
Pilgrims- early colonists who believed in worshipping differently than the Church of England, and moved to North America to escape religious persecution.
pioneer- one who goes ahead; an early settler.
plantation- huge farms that specialized in growing cash crops such as banana, tobacco, and coffee.
plentiful- having enough; sufficient.
political- relating to governmental processes.
political party- groups of people with the same ideas on how to run the country.
political tactics- actions taken by a politician to get support for the ideas of the politician.
pools- agreements between businesses to limit competition.
Pope- a leader of Roman Catholic Church.
popular sovereignty- the idea that people of a territory should decide the issue by voting; used before the Civil War.
portable- a condition that is easily carried and transported.
poverty- being poor; lack of money.
power loom- a machine that weaves cloth completely.
prejudice- to create an opinion without enough reasons.
prevent- stop; interrupt.
primogeniture- old British legal system that says all the land owned by a man would pass to his oldest son when the man died.
Proclamation of 1763- an act made by the British legislature that said British colonists could live only on the land to the east of the Appalachian Mountains.
productive- being able to work better, faster, and more.
propaganda- a rumor spread to support some idea.
prosperity- success; a period of economic well-being.
propose- suggest, offer a plan.
profession- job; career.
profit- money that remains from selling a product or service after the costs of production and selling have been deducted.
protest- declare and object to something formally.
provision- condition; contract.
publication- to print and offer for sale in public.
public polarization- a condition in which people disagree strongly about an issue and cannot make an agreement.
Puritans- English people who were persecuted because they wanted to purify the religious practices of the Church of England. They emigrated to the colonies to escape the persecution.
Q through Z
Quakers- a religious group that came to America to escape persecution in England. They are tolerant of other religions.
radical- a person who wants to change the way a society is organized or governed.
rally- draw or call together for a common purpose.
ratify- to formally agree to a plan.
raw materials- natural resources from the earth used in manufacturing to make finished products and goods.
ready-to-wear- clothing items not fitted to each person, but made in standard sizes that can be mass produced.
rebellion- an action against those in power.
rebels- those who defy authority.
reclaim- claim (demand) again.
reconstruction- the act of constructing again; a rebuilding.
recruit- to hire, look for new men (for the army).
reform- make an improvement.
refuge- shelter or protection from danger.
regiment- soldiers; troops.
regulate- direct or govern by rule.
reparation- payment for making up damage.
repeal- to cancel a law.
rescue- help from danger or evil.
resentment- hatred; anger.
reservation- an area of land set aside for Native Americans.
residents- people who live in a certain place.
resign- give up a position or post.
resistance- the act of being resisting (refusing to agree on).
restrict- to limit.
resources- things and people available for use in reaching a goal.
resume- continue/begin again after interruption.
revenue-generating laws- laws designed to raise money for a government.
revoke- stop by taking back; cancel.
riot- disturbance from disorderly conduct.
rivals- people or countries who compete against each other.
rural- an area, such as a farm or small town, where few people live.
sabotage- violent destruction.
scatter- locate in distanced places.
search and seizure- police or army's action of looking for and taking away property.
search warrant- a paper signed by a judge that allows the police to search someone's home or property.
secede- to stop being part of a country.
segregation- the practice of separating culture by the color of one's skin.
seize- grasp suddenly; try to legally possess/own.
self-government- able to operate own government.
self-sufficient- a state of being able to make all the things needed for survival on one's own.
Senate- the House of Congress with two members from each state.
servitude- slavery (complete control of a person by another person).
settlers- people who move to stay in a certain place.
shelter- a roofed place; house.
slavery- complete control of a person by another person.
slogan- a special phrase that is used for guiding people.
smuggling- secretly and illegally bringing goods into a place or country.
Spaniards- people in Spain.
specialize- become very familiar with and good at doing one particular job.
spectator- a person who buys something with the hope that it will significantly increase in value.
sponsor- a person or company who supports for another financially.
Stamp Act- an act passed by the British parliament requiring the colonists to pay a tax to Britain on all legal papers and other printed things.
starvation- dying of hunger.
starve- to die of hunger.
stockbrokers- people who buys and sells the stock (shares of corporations' ownership).
stock market- place for exchanging the stock (shares of corporations' ownership).
stockpile- to collect and save something that people fear they will not be able to get later.
Suffolk Resolves- a document that a group of radicals succeeded in getting the Congress to agree; main issues are (1) to set up a boycott of British goods by the colonies and (2) to restart local militias in each colony.
Sugar Act- a law passed by the British Parliament to raise money in the colonies by taxing sugar and other products.
superior- more excellent; greater; higher.
supplement- add something for a support.
supplies- products necessary to live.
supply- how much of a product is available to sell.
surrender- give up.
tactics- strategies; plans of movement of the troops in the battles.
tariff- a government tax that is added on imports or exports.
temporary- last only a short period.
tenant farmers- farmers who work in other's land.
10% Plan- President Lincoln's plan for redeveloping the South after the Civil War.
terminology- special vocabulary words or terms for the area of study.
terrorize- to dominate by fear and intimidation.
textiles- weaving or cloth.
timber- growing trees.
Tories (or Loyalists)- colonists who supported the British government and wanted Britain to win the Revolutionary War.
total war- a war that an army destroys everything with military or economic value of the opponent.
Townshend Acts- a tax put on colonial imports before they were sold to the colonists.
trade- the buying, selling, and transporting of products and goods.
trade laws- laws that control imports and exports.
trade route- the way traders go to reach a market.
traitor- one who betrays.
treasury- the funds of a government.
treaty- a written agreement between groups of people.
Treaty of Paris (1783)- a treaty between England and France that ended the French and Indian War.
tremendous- very great in size, amount, or degree; enormous.
trench- a long, narrow hole in the ground as a shelter in warfare.
trial by jury- to make court decisions from the decision by jury (12 ordinary people selected).
tribe- a group of Native Americans who owns their own culture and lived together in a certain area.
trigger- cause something to happen.
unconstitutional- not in accordance with the constitution.
uncultivated- undeveloped, waste, and barren (land).
unify- form into a single whole.
Union [or North] - the 24 states that remained in the country after South formed the Confederacy.
universe- the whole world.
urban- an area, such as a city, where many people live.
ventilation- a condition that lets fresh air into.
vertical integration- a condition which a company controls everything needed to make a product.
veto- president's right to reject or cancel the bill passed by Congress.
virtue- a moral (knowledge of right from wrong behavior).
voluntary- done by one's own decision or free choice.
voyage- a journey to a distant place.
wage- engage; carry on.
wages- earnings, money paid for doing work.
War Hawks- representatives in Congress who supported the War of 1812.
wilderness- a land in which no people live.
withhold- refuse to accept/release.
Table of Contents