Shays' Rebellion
One incident of Shays' Rebellion
at a Massachusetts Court
[audio] Stages of Cooperation

  • There are 4 Stages of Cooperation:
    1. Gather together and discuss common problems
    2. Occasional voluntary cooperation
    3. Regular voluntary cooperation
    4. Legally Binding Cooperation

[audio] The 13 Colonies Began Cooperating

Stage 1: The Colonies Gathered to Discuss Common Problems

The Albany Congress

  • Representatives: people that are chosen to vote and speak at a meeting for other people.
  • At the Albany Congress the colonists did two things:
    1. Asked the Iroquois to join their side in fighting the war against the French.
    2. Made a plan for joining the militias of all 13 colonies together to fight the French = Albany Plan of Union.
  • The Albany Plan of Union was made to bring the colonies together in an group as a way to become stronger and beat the French.
  • Before the Albany Plan of Union could start to work the legislature had to ratify the plan.
  • Ratify: to agree to a plan-most often by voting for it.
  • At the Albany convention the 13 colonies were at Stage 1 of cooperation. Stage 1= gathering together and discussing problems.
  • If the Albany plan were ratified they would skip steps two and three of cooperation because being involved with the plan would be a part of the law.

The Albany Plan Fails

  • The Albany Plan failed to pass because the representatives of the 13 colonies were not ready to join together as one and give-up their control over things like taxes and trade.

[audio] Stage 2-The 13 Colonies Began Occasional Voluntary Cooperation

Parliament imposed the Stamp Tax

  • Colonial leaders refused to pay the Stamp Tax to Britain because they did not have anyone representing their concerns in the British Parliament ("No taxation without representation").

The Stamp Act congress met

  • The 13 Colonies had a boycott on all things from Britain. Boycott: people acting as a group to refuse to buy certain things in order to make the government change a law.

[audio] Stage 3-Regular Voluntary Cooperation Began

The Revolutionary War caused regular voluntary cooperation

  • Three things must happen for regular voluntary cooperation to happen:
    1) People involved have worked together in the past.
    2) When they have worked together they were able to solve their problems.
    3) Problems reoccur, keep happening

The Articles of Confederation

Another Example of Regular Voluntary Cooperation: Articles of Confederation

  • The new state constitution replaced the British colonial government.
  • It was difficult for the Second Continental Congress to form a new government because the separate states did not want to give up their power to create one central government.
  • The Second Continental Congress wrote a plan with a weak central government because they knew that the states were not ready to give up their individual control over their state.
  • Articles of Confederation: new plan of government that made sure the central government wasn't any stronger than the Continental Congress.
  • The Articles of Confederation could not do anything if a state didn't follow the agreements.

[audio] Problems with Regular Voluntary Cooperation

The United States Had Economic Problems After the Revolutionary War

Voluntary cooperation could not solve the problems for traders

  • Spain hurt the United States trade by blocking off the port of New Orleans to American farmers that needed to sell their products.
  • New Orleans was an important city because farm goods were sent into New Orleans to be sold in the city and others were sent out to be sold on the east coast.
  • When states started printing their own money, they ran into problems because no one could agree on how much different types of money were worth.
  • States also had problems when they raised taxes on products brought into their states because it stopped other states from trading with them.

The government could not pay its debts from the war

  • The Continental Congress borrowed money from other countries and wealthy people to pay for the Revolutionary War.
  • Inflation: decrease in what money is worth which leads to needing more and more money to be able to buy something.

[audio] Falling prices for food meant farmers could not pay their debts

  • The prices for food fell after the war because men returning from the army started to sell food again and there was less of a demand for food.

Shays' Rebellion

  • Daniel Shays and the farmers wanted to stop the courts from sending farmers to jail for failing to pay off their debts.
  • If the farmers did not pay off their debts, the wealthy people would lose money.
  • Wealthy people wanted to work for a federal government because:
    1) Shays' Rebellion scared them about the farmers ability to weaken the country
    2) They could lose a great deal of money if farmers didn't pay them back.

Time to Change the Plan of Government

  • After the Revolutionary War cooperating voluntarily with each other was not successful. The convention was suppose to write a new constitution

[audio] Compromise Made Possible a Plan for Legally-Binding Cooperation

Difficulties in Setting Rules for Cooperation

  • Virginia favored a plan that gave more representation by population because they had a large state population.
  • Representatives at the Convention settled their disagreements by compromising = each side gives up a little so that they can all agree.

A Compromise settled the Problem of Representation in Congress

  • States had difficulty agreeing on how many votes each state would get because smaller states wanted one vote per state and larger states wanted the number of votes based on the state population.

[audio] A Compromise About How to Count Slaves

  • The south wanted slaves to count because: more people equals more representation.
  • Northern Plan had two disadvantages for Southern States:
    1) Slaves could not count as population.
    2) Slave owners should pay taxes on slaves.

Solution to the problem of counting slaves

  • Problem: Northern and Southern states disagreed on whether slaves should be counted as part of the state population.
  • Solution:
    1) Slaves would be taxed at three-fifths of their full value.
    2) Slaves would count as population at three-fifth's value.

[audio] A Compromise Settled a Problem of Control Over Trade

  • Southerners didn't want the federal government to control trade for two reasons:
    1) Didn't want government to collect taxes on trade.
    2) Worried that the government would stop slave trade.
  • Northerners wanted the federal government to have control over trade:
    1) Wanted taxes between states to end.
    2) Wanted to end slave trade. New York representatives left the convention because they were so upset about the compromise on slavery.

Solution to the problem of control over trade

  • Problem: Southern and Northern states disagreed about role of government in trade
  • Solution:
    1) No taxes on trade
    2) No laws to stop slave trade

Getting the New Constitution Ratified

  • The Convention Approves the Constitution
  • Representatives had to make compromises to make sure that all of the states could work together.
  • The Articles of Confederation needed all 13 states to agree to it.
  • The new Constitution only needed nine states to agree so that it would be easier to pass.

Working to Ratify the Constitution

  • To Ratify the Constitution:
    1) Each state elected representatives.
    2) Representatives voted on the Constitution.