Poster of Zapata
Poster supporting the Mexican
rebel Zapata
[audio]Domination, Accommodation, and Imperialism

  • Domination is used when dealing with another country that has a weaker economy and a weaker military.
  • Accommodation is necessary when dealing with a country that has an equally strong economy and military.
  • Imperialism occurs when the people of a strong nation dominate the people of a weak nation, denying people in the weak nation the freedom to make their own decisions about economic and political problems.

The United States in Latin America

Domination and Accommodation in South America

The Monroe Doctrine

  • 1820s - the U.S. government was worried that Spain might try to reclaim some of its lost territory, particularly the Louisiana territory. President Monroe declared that the U.S. would not tolerate any European country getting involved in any part of North or South America.
  • This declaration was known as the Monroe Doctrine which was not a treaty or an agreement with other countries. It was a statement by the United States that the U.S. would not allow European countries to expand their control over territory in Latin America.
  • The British navy did not want European countries to get more influence over Latin America. Fear of the British navy kept France and Spain from trying to do so.

[audio]Crisis with France

  • The U.S. wanted France to leave Mexico because they did not want a European nation to control a country that bordered the U.S.
  • The U.S. got France to leave Mexico because they insisted that the French leave or face a possible war. France decided that fighting an overseas battle with both the Mexicans and the Americans would be too hard and pulled their troops out of Mexico.

Crisis in Chile

  • The U.S. supported the President of Chile during the revolution there. When the President of Chile lost control of the government, many people in Chile were angry with the U.S. for supporting him. When the U.S. ships came ashore in Chile, a riot broke out and two American sailors were killed. Chile did not want to apologize for these deaths until the U.S. president said he might consider going to war with Chile. They apologized and sent money to the families of the deceased.

Crisis in Venezuela

  • 1895 - a dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain gave the U.S. a chance to demonstrate its influence in the Americas.
  • The dispute was about the location of the border between Venezuela and British Guinea.
  • The U.S. helped solve the problem.

[audio]The Spanish-American War

  • 1898 - the U.S. fought a brief war with Spain
  • Spain's influence changed during the 1800s because countries such as Mexico, Peru,Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, fought successful wars of independence from Spain.
  • The U.S. became the largest importer of Cuban sugar in 1894, importing over 1 million tons.
  • 1890s - America wanted to go to war with Spain because Spain had sent troops to Cuba to stop them from gaining independence and in the process had killed many Cubans and Americans living in Cuba.
  • 1898 - two events increased the desire of Americans to go to war with Spain:
    (1) The publication in a New York newspaper of a letter from the Spanish ambassador to a friend in Cuba in which the Spanish ambassador had accused President McKinley of being weak. This angered the President and the American public.
    (2) The sinking of the U.S. battleship, Maine, which had gone to Cuba to protect American citizens there. On Feb.15, 1898 an explosion occurred on the Maine, killing 260 American sailors.
  • Reasons why some businessmen wanted a war with Spain:
    (1) They thought a war would help the U.S. economy recover from the depression that had started in 1893.
    (2) Some wanted Spain out of Cuba in order to make it easier for American companies to do business with Cuba.
  • The policy of the United States toward Spain used domination. Cuba and the Philippines were supposed to gain independence after the Spanish-American war.
  • Puerto Rico was supposed to be turned over to the control of the U.S.

[audio]Post-war Relations with Cuba

  • 1901 - Platt Amendment was passed.
  • This amendment stated that the U.S. would send troops into Cuba if the new Cuban government was unable to protect life and property.
  • The Cubans were told that their constitution must include provisions stating that Cuba:
    (1) could not enter into any agreement with a foreign power that could endanger its independence
    (2) would give the right to the U.S. to intervene in Cuba if the Cuban government had problems
    (3) would lease a naval base at Guantanamo Bay to the U.S.
  • American troops started a revolution in Cuba in 1906 and remained in Cuba until 1909.

[audio]Domination in the Caribbean

Roosevelt Corollary

  • 1904 - President Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. It basically said that the U.S. would act as a policeman in Latin America.

U.S. Control of Puerto Rico

  • Puerto Rico was made a territory of the U.S. because the Teller Amendment had stated that Cuba would not become a territory of the United States, but it never said anything about Puerto Rico.

Haiti and the Dominican Republic

  • Caribbean countries where the U.S. intervened during the early 1900s: Haiti & Dominican Republic.

[audio] Domination in Central America and Mexico

  • Dollar diplomacy is a phrase which referred to actions taken to protect American business interests in these foreign countries.

The Panama Canal

  • 1860s - there had been talk of building a canal across the narrowest part of Central America that would enable ships to pass from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean without going around South America.
  • The U.S. was interested in building a canal across Central America because it would save time and ships could make more trips, which meant more products could be sold and businesses could earn more profit.
  • Isthmus is a narrow strip of land that connects two larger pieces of land.
  • The 2 possible routes for a canal across Central America were:
    (1) Across Nicaragua
    (2) Across the Isthmus of Panama
  • Roosevelt encouraged the people in Panama to declare independence from Colombia because he did not want to take the chance that a revolution in Colombia would stop the U.S. from building a canal.
  • The U.S. ensured that Panama would be independent by sending American warships to defend them from Colombian troops. Roosevelt offered Panama the same terms that he had offered Colombia, which was $10 million for the right to build the canal and $250,000 a year as "rent" for the Canal Zone.
  • 1914 - the Panama Canal was completed

[audio]U.S. Relations with Mexico

  • The U.S. relationship with Mexico was important because of Mexico's large population and its long border with the U.S.
  • 1911 - a revolution led by different Mexican groups forced the Mexican dictator to resign.
  • Pancho Villa and Emilliano Zapata, who were rebel leaders, wanted to get the United States to get involved in the war and make it look like the U.S. was supporting the Mexican government.
  • 1916 - Villa stopped a train in Northern Mexico and executed 16 Americans. When the U.S. did not invade Mexico, Villa attacked the town of Columbus, New Mexico, and killed 19 Americans.
  • In response to these attacks, President Wilson sent an army of 6,500 men into Mexico to capture Pancho Villa. The U.S. was about to go to war with Germany, and Wilson needed his army back in the U.S., so he called back his army from Mexico.
  • 1900s - many Mexicans left Mexico to settle in the U.S. because of the disorder and poverty due to Zapata and Villa.

[audio] The United States in the Pacific

  • The Asian countries and islands in the Pacific became important to the U.S. because those islands could be used as naval bases and refueling stations for ships traveling across the Pacific.

Domination in the Philippines

  • After the Spanish-American war, the peace treaty specified that the Philippines were supposed to become independent.
  • Filipino leaders became angry at the U.S. because the Americans refused to allow Filipino leaders to form their own government after the Spanish-American war.
  • 1902 - The United States had to ensure that the Philippine legislature wouldn't pass laws that hurt American business. They passed an act that stated how the Philippines would be governed. It would have 2 parts:
    (1) one part appointed by the U.S. President
    (2) one part elected by the Filipino people

Domination of Hawaii

  • The two main economies in Hawaii during the 1800s were whaling and sugar.
  • Hawaii was important for shipping because it was half way between the U.S. and Asia.
  • The Hawaiian sugar plantation owners wanted Hawaii to become part of the U.S. so they could sell their products without the tariffs.
  • Congress allowed Hawaii to become a U.S. territory because after the Spanish-American war, the supply of sugar from Cuba stopped, and they needed sugar from Hawaii.

[audio] Purchase of Alaska

  • 1867 - Alaska was controlled by Russia. Russia offered to sell Alaska to the U.S. for just over $7 million.
  • William Seward, the Secretary of State, bought Alaska for the United States. Alaska became known as Seward's folly because everyone thought it was a foolish purchase.
  • Reasons why Seward wanted to purchase Alaska:
    (1) He thought this was a possible way to convince Canada to become part of the U.S.
    (2) He thought Alaska would provide closer ports to China.

Domination and Accommodation in China

  • Americans and Europeans were interested in China because the great population of China was seen as a great potential market for the sale of European and American manufactured goods.
  • Spheres of influence are countries that made agreements that each nation would have control over the trade with certain parts of China.
  • The Open Door Notes declared that the U.S. reserved the right to trade at all ports and that no government should interfere with the rights of the Chinese government in these ports.

The Boxer Rebellion

  • Boxers - an organization called the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, which taught its members the art of Chinese boxing and religious rituals to prepare fighters for battle. The organization was referred to by westerners as Boxers.
  • 1900 - the Boxers attacked Chinese government officials and Chinese who converted to Christianity. The Boxers managed to isolate embassies of foreign governments. This caused European countries and America to send troops.

[audio]Accommodation with Japan

  • 1854 - Matthew C. Perry, American Commander, took his navy to Japan and forced the Japanese to begin trading with the U.S.
  • Japan was the most powerful Asian country in the late 1800s.
  • 1904-1905 - Japan fought a war with Russia. A peace conference was called, in which U.S. President Roosevelt served as a mediator. Agreements were reached:
    a. Japan was given control over the disputed area.
    b. The U.S. agreed not to interfere with Japan's actions in Korea and Manchuria. Japan agreed not to interfere with the U.S. interests in the Philippines.