A-H | I-P | Q-Z | Table of Contents

A through H

abolish- stop; put an end to.[audio]

abolitionists- people who wanted slavery to be abolished (stopped).[audio]

accommodate- when people change how they think or what they do when they have a problem that they are unable to solve in a more desired way.[audio]

accomplish- reach; achieve; bring to pass.[audio]

acquire- get.[audio]

accuse- charge with guilty or blame.[audio]

adhere- become joined; stick fast.[audio]

administration- a group of people who are in charge of making many important decisions.[audio]

advertise- the way to increase the sale of products or services through commercial on radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, or other.[audio]

advocate- support; be on one's side.[audio]

affair- business.[audio]

affect- influence; make a change on.[audio]

Age of Exploration- the period of time when Europeans were exploring new land.[audio]

aggressive- a state that is likely to attack others or be hostile.[audio]

agriculture- farming.[audio]

allegiance- the obligation of a person to his/her state or government.[audio]

alliance- an agreement between people or nations that states they will help each other.[audio]

allies- nations associating and cooperating with each other by an agreement.[audio]

ambassador- a person with the highest rank in dealing with diplomacy (relating with other countries).[audio]

amendment- formal written change to a document, such as the U.S. Constitution.[audio]

ammunition- materials used in discharging firearms.[audio]

ancestor- a person who is descended (grandmother, grand-grand-father, etc.).[audio]

annex/annexation- attaching a smaller land to a larger land.[audio]

annuity- yearly payment.[audio]

apologize- offer an excuse; express sorrow.[audio]

appoint- fix; write.[audio]

apprentice- a young person learning a skill from a master craftsman.[audio]

approximately- about.[audio]

assassin- a person who assassinated (killed violently and secretly) someone.[audio]

assassinate- kill violently and secretly.[audio]

assemble- to put together.[audio]

assembly- an event that people meet together for a purpose.[audio]

assert- state as true; declare.[audio]

astonishment- shock; surprise; struck with wonder.[audio]

astrolabe- an instrument that allowed sailors to measure latitude.[audio]

atomic bomb- extremely powerful bomb using nuclear fission.[audio]

attempt- try.[audio]

attorney- lawyer.[audio]

attract- draw toward.[audio]

available- a condition of being able to use something.[audio]

Aztecs- American native people of ancient Mexico.[audio]

ballot- a ticket or other device for marking an individual vote; the total number of votes are recorded by this.[audio]

bankrupt- a condition of not having enough money to pay off debts.[audio]

barbed wire- wire with spikes or hooked points.[audio]

barges- large flat bottom boats that carry goods and products place to place.[audio]

bear- carry.[audio]

beneficial- receiving advantage, use, or benefit.[audio]

benefit- to be helpful; easy to get a profit.[audio]

bill of rights- a list of people's rights that a government agrees all people will have.[audio]

biome- an area with a similar climate, plants, and animals.[audio]

blaze- make (a trail) and announce it publicly.[audio]

blockade- closing off of a place with military to control people who enter or exit.[audio]

Border States- 5 states that are on the border between the North and South during the Civil War (Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia).[audio]

Boston Massacre- an event in which British army soldiers stationed in Boston killed colonial protesters.[audio]

bound- limit.[audio]

boundary- something that marks a limit; border.[audio]

boycott- a condition that a group of people refuse to buy certain goods or services to influence a government or a business to make change.[audio]

bribe- money paid to a person to get him/her to do something dishonest.[audio]

bulky- large in volume.[audio]

burden- things that are difficult to do.[audio]

campaign- a series of activities for some purpose such as election to public office.[audio]

candidate- one that aspires to or is nominated or qualified for an office.[audio]

capability- the ability of a group of people to do certain things.[audio]

captives- prisoners; those who were captured (got caught).[audio]

capture- catch.[audio]

Cabot, John- an English explorer who sailed to America in 1497 looking for a trade route to Asia.[audio]

caravel- a small, fast sailing ship that could sail into the wind.[audio]

cash crops- crops or animals raised to be sold.[audio]

casualty- a soldier who cannot fight because of wounds, injury, sickness, or death.[audio]

cavalry- an army component mounted on horseback.[audio]

cease- stop doing an action.[audio]

censor- judge critically on the publication, communications, etc.[audio]

checks and balances- each branch of the government has the power to either stop or participate in actions by the other two branches.[audio]

Cherokee- a Native American tribe who lived in the state of Georgia.[audio]

clad- dressed; clothed.[audio]

claim- demand.[audio]

clerical- relating to office work.[audio]

climate- the typical weather in an area over a long period of time.[audio]

cohesive- agreeable; consistent; a state that people agree and work together.[audio]

collapse- fail; break down.[audio]

colonial- of colonies.[audio]

combine- join; unite.[audio]

commander-in-chief- the person in change of the entire armed forces.[audio]

commercialize- to set up a business or company to make a profit.[audio]

commercial manufacturing- making goods and supplies to sell to others.[audio]

communist- political party or government that believes in communism (theory that the common people should own all the property).[audio]

compromise- settlement of a difference of opinion in which both sides agree to give up a part of its demands.[audio]

Confederate States of America [or Confederacy; South]- 11 southern states that broke away from the U.S. and formed their own country.[audio]

confederation- several different tribes or nations that agree to meet regularly to make important decisions.[audio]

conflict- clash, a situation in which two sides of people cannot stay happily together due to their differences in actions, beliefs, opinions, etc.[audio]

congress- a formal meeting for discussion; U.S. Congress.[audio]

conquer- overcome/dominate completely by force.[audio]

conquistador- "conquerors" in Spanish; Spaniards who conquered lands in Central and South America.[audio]

consequent- resulting.[audio]

consequence- effect that follows as a result of some cause.[audio]

conserve- preserve; keep.[audio]

constitution- a written plan of government.[audio]

construct- build; make.[audio]

consumer- a person who uses economic goods.[audio]

Continental Army- the army of the 13 Colonies.[audio]

contribute- give with others; have a share.[audio]

convention- a formal meeting.[audio]

convert- change.[audio]

convince- cause a person to believe; persuade.[audio]

corrupt- becoming dishonest with bribes.[audio]

cotton gin- a nickname of cotton engine (machine to clean cotton); it increased the demand for slave labor as an unintended effect.[audio]

cultivator- plowing machine.[audio]

cultural- the way of life of a group of people.[audio]

curtail- cut short.[audio]

custom- usual practice or habit; tradition.[audio]

debate- an organized, public argument for and against a certain idea.[audio]

debt- money people owed to someone.[audio]

Declaration of Independence- the statement of the reasons why the 13 Colonies should be separate from Britain.[audio]

decease- death.[audio]

declare- state; say.[audio]

decent- good enough; fair.[audio]

demand- people's desire for a product or service.[audio]

deport- force a person to leave somewhere.[audio]

depression- a bad economy period when companies decrease production and many people lose their jobs.[audio]

deprive- take away; prevent from possessing.[audio]

descendant- a person descended from his or her older generations.[audio]

desert- leave the army without permission.[audio]

desire- strong wants.[audio]

destine- decide beforehand; having a destiny.[audio]

destructive- destroying; causing damage.[audio]

dictator- a person who has total power for making every decision in a country.[audio]

dictatorial- commanded by dictator (a person who has total power for making every decision in a country).[audio]

disburse- pay out; expend.[audio]

discrimination- judge and treat people differently depending on their race, class, sex, etc.[audio]

disgrace- shame; loss of one's pride.[audio]

dimension- measure in one direction (length, breadth, thickness, etc.).[audio]

dispute- a state of having a disagreement; argument.[audio]

disrupt- to interrupt; to break apart.[audio]

distribute- to divide up among several or many; to spread out.[audio]

double jeopardy- A promise the people cannot be found guilty if they have already been found not guilty of the same crime.[audio]

dominate- a situation in which one group has control over another.[audio]

dominion- control; highest authority.[audio]

due process- any U.S. citizens people's rights cannot be taken unless having a proper law process.[audio]

dweller- a person who lives in certain place; resident.[audio]

economic- having the process of producing, buying, and selling goods and services.[audio]

efficient- to produce, make, or bring about without waste, extra expense, time, or labor.[audio]

eligible- fit to be chosen.[audio]

eliminate- get rid of; remove; omit.[audio]

Emancipation Proclamation - President Lincoln's speech that freed the slaves in the land controlled by the North given on September 22, 1863.[audio]

embargo- a ban on trade with another country or group of countries.[audio]

embassy- headquarter that an ambassador and his/her staff work.[audio]

emerge- show up; come up.[audio]

enact- to make into a law.[audio]

encircle- surround.[audio]

enclosure- to turn land for crops into pasture land for animals.[audio]

encourage- promote; suggest; inspire.[audio]

enforce- put or keep in force.[audio]

engrave- carve in a wood, metal, or stone; cut in.[audio]

enthusiasm- excitement; strong interest.[audio]

erosion- washing or wearing away the surface of the earth.[audio]

escalate- to keep increasing.[audio]

essential- necessary; cannot function without.[audio]

establish- fix; create; set up.[audio]

ethnic- classification of a large group of people based on common traits and customs.[audio]

evolution- scientific theory that all animals and plants can have continuous change to adopt to their environment.[audio]

exchange- give in return for something else.[audio]

execute- put to death.[audio]

exhausted- tired.[audio]

expansion- the act of increasing, making larger, as in the size of a country.[audio]

expertise- the possession of great knowlede.[audio]

exports- trade goods that are sold to another country or colony.[audio]

famine- a condition with extreme lack of food; starvation (dying of hunger).[audio]

favorable- having more advantage.[audio]

Federalists- the people who wanted the U.S. to have a strong federal government.[audio]

fertilizer- chemical used by farmers that is put on the soil to improve plant growth.[audio]

finance- to deal with money including spending, credit, resources, profit, etc.[audio]

financial- relating to finance.[audio]

fleet- an organized group of ships.[audio]

flog- beat or whip as punishment.[audio]

forbid- prohibit; order not to be done.[audio]

forclose- to legally take over the property of the person who rented because money owed has not been repaid.[audio]

fort- a place that is strongly defended by military.[audio]

frontier- a part of a country that is next to the unsettled region.[audio]

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850- a law that stated that U.S. government could help slave owners or their slave catchers to get back the escaped slaves.[audio]

geographic- having the surface features of an area, such as mountains, valleys, and rivers.[audio]

ghetto- an area of a city that is often rundown.[audio]

Ghost Dance- a ceremony with dance done by Native American tribes (started by Wovoka and Paiute in Nevada).[audio]

govern- control; rule.[audio]

governor- a person who controls a certain place.[audio]

grant- accept.[audio]

guidance- to direct, guide, show a way.[audio]

harmonious- agreeing and pleasing each other when people are staying together.[audio]

harrow- a farming equipment that used to break up clods with iron teeth.[audio]

harshness- being hard; rough to the senses.[audio]

Hessians- soldiers from an area in Germany called Hesse-Cassel, who were hired by the British to fight against the colonists during the Revolutionary War.[audio]

historian- a person who studies or writes about history.[audio]

homage- respect.[audio]

Homestead Act- a law for getting people to move to the Great Plains and the Northwest.[audio]

House of Representatives- the House of Congress with representation based on population.[audio]


I through P

immigrant- a person who comes to a country from another country to live permanently.[audio]

immigration- the actual movement from one country to another.[audio]

immunity- a strength that human has to protect from diseases.[audio]

impeach- to present formal charges against an elected official (especially, President), accusing that person of misconduct in office.[audio]

imports- trade goods brought into a colony or country from another country.[audio]

impose- put; lay on.[audio]

improvement- the act of making things better.[audio]

Incas- American native people of ancient Peru.[audio]

independence- ruling, guiding, or governing oneself; free of rule by any other government.[audio]

industry- a large system in which products, or goods, are manufactured or made in a systematic and mechanical method.[audio]

inevitable- unavoidable; sure to come or happen.[audio]

inflation- an increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods and services resulting in a continuing rise in the general price level.[audio]

inhabit- live or dwell in.[audio]

inheritance- person's belongings.[audio]

initiate- start.[audio]

inspect - check.[audio]

inspire- influence; stimulate to make people do something.[audio]

interaction- meeting difference and acting on each other or one another.[audio]

intercept- pick up the secret information off the radio.[audio]

interchangeable parts- parts that are the same in each product.[audio]

interdependent- when two or more depend on each other.[audio]

interfere- interrupt other's business.[audio]

interpret- show the meaning of; explain.[audio]

intervene- interfere (interrupt other's business).[audio]

intolerable- unbearable; too much to be endured.[audio]

invade- to enter as an enemy.[audio]

invention- to discover or create something new.[audio]

investigate- study and examine in detail.[audio]

irrigate- to bring water for crops from somewhere else through man-made ditches and canals.[audio]

isolate- place apart; separate from others.[audio]

Jeffersonians- persons who believed in the ideas of Thomas Jefferson. He wanted the U.S. to be a country with many small farms but not much big business.[audio]

judgemental- make a critical decision depending on one's own opinion.[audio]

jury- a group of 12 citizens who stay in a trial and decide if the accused person is guilty or not guity.[audio]

justice- judge (a person who makes the final decision) at the Supreme Court.[audio]

labor- the services performed by workers in return for wages.[audio]

landforms- the natural features of the earth's surface (rivers, mountains, oceans, etc.).[audio]

landowners- people who own land.[audio]

latitude- the distance of a point on the earth's surface from the equator (a line that divides the earth into equal two parts).[audio]

leadership- the skill or expertise of a group's leaders.[audio]

lease- get a land, building, car, etc. by paying fixed amount of money.[audio]

legislature- a group of people elected to make the laws for a government.[audio]

leisure- spare time; freedom from working.[audio]

life-threatening- being in danger of losing life.[audio]

likelihood- probability; possibility.[audio]

literacy- the ability to read and write.[audio]

livestock- cattle; useful domestic animals.[audio]

loan- to lend something.[audio]

loathsome- hateful; disgusting.[audio]

Louisiana Purchase- an event in 1803 that the US bought the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from France.[audio]

loyalty- being faithful.[audio]

lure- draw toward something. attract.[audio]

luxuries- items that you do not need to live, but enjoy having.[audio]

Magna Carta- an agreement forced on the English King John in 1215 to limit his power.[audio]

malaria- a transmittable disease that causes high fevers.[audio]

Manifest Destiny- the belief that the U.S. has a right and responsibility to expand its land.[audio]

manipulate- influence; control.[audio]

manufacture- to make things either by hand or with machines.[audio]

massacre- to kill hundreds of people.[audio]

mass culture- behaviors that are common among a group of people because they listen to or watch the same events.[audio]

master craftsman- person who was skilled at making special products like wagons or rifles.[audio]

mechanical reaper- a machine that helped to harvest grain.[audio]

mediator- someone who helps opposing groups to reach an agreement.[audio]

merchant- a person who buys and sells products or services.[audio]

messengers- people who pass the information.[audio]

militia- local military group to protect people.[audio]

missionary- one sent to spread his religion or philosophy in a foreign land.[audio]

mobs- a large number of ordinary people.[audio]

modernize- become modern (the present or recent time).[audio]

Montezuma- the Aztec's leader.[audio]

moral- knowing right from wrong behavior.[audio]

multiple perspectives- different ways of looking at the same event.[audio]

motivation- a desire to succeed.[audio]

multiple perspectives- different ways of looking at the same event.[audio]

Muslims- people who believe in the religion called Islam.[audio]

National Anthem- national song.[audio]

naturalize- admit to citizenship.[audio]

natural resources- raw materials from the earth used in manufacturing to make finished products and goods.[audio]

Navigation Acts- a series of trade laws designed to help Britain by controlling the colonies.[audio]

neutral- taking neither side in a war, quarrel, or dispute.[audio]

noble- of high birth, rank, or title.[audio]

nominate- propose for election.[audio]

nullify- to make a law no longer in effect.[audio]

oath- a formal statement, promise, or swearing with God as witness.[audio]

obtain- get.[audio]

occasional- occurring now and then; sometimes.[audio]

occupy- take up and fill the space, time, attention, etc.[audio]

Olive Branch Petition- the colonists' request that the king repeal the Intolerable Acts.[audio]

optimistic- being positive and hopeful toward the future.[audio]

ore- a mineral or rock that has metals.[audio]

overproduction- producing certain products or services too much.[audio]

overthrow- defeat; knock down.[audio]

ownership- right of possession.[audio]

parity- equity.[audio]

Parliament- legislative assembly in countries such as Great Britain.[audio]

patent- a legal document that gives just one person or group the right to make, use, or sell an invention.[audio]

patronage- hiring people because of their friendship not because of their ability.[audio]

people's rights problems- when people do not have basic rights.[audio]

permanent- lasting, fixed.[audio]

persecuted- harassed/having a hard time because of one's religion.[audio]

persuade- make person to agree with your point; convince.[audio]

perspective- way of seeing things; viewpoint.[audio]

petition- a formal written statement to government, requesting a change.[audio]

petroleum- unrefined oil got from the earth; oil that creates useful fuels.[audio]

philosophic- about personal belief and attitude on lives.[audio]

Pilgrims- early colonists who believed in worshipping differently than the Church of England, and moved to North America to escape religious persecution.[audio]

pioneer- one who goes ahead; an early settler.[audio]

plantation- huge farms that specialized in growing cash crops such as banana, tobacco, and coffee.[audio]

plentiful- having enough; sufficient.[audio]

political- relating to governmental processes.[audio]

political party- groups of people with the same ideas on how to run the country.[audio]

political tactics- actions taken by a politician to get support for the ideas of the politician.[audio]

pools- agreements between businesses to limit competition.[audio]

Pope- a leader of Roman Catholic Church.[audio]

popular sovereignty- the idea that people of a territory should decide the issue by voting; used before the Civil War.[audio]

portable- a condition that is easily carried and transported.[audio]

potential- possible.[audio]

poverty- being poor; lack of money.[audio]

power loom- a machine that weaves cloth completely.[audio]

prejudice- to create an opinion without enough reasons.[audio]

prevent- stop; interrupt.[audio]

primogeniture- old British legal system that says all the land owned by a man would pass to his oldest son when the man died.[audio]

Proclamation of 1763- an act made by the British legislature that said British colonists could live only on the land to the east of the Appalachian Mountains.[audio]

productive- being able to work better, faster, and more.[audio]

propaganda- a rumor spread to support some idea.[audio]

prosperity- success; a period of economic well-being.[audio]

propose- suggest, offer a plan.[audio]

profession- job; career.[audio]

profit- money that remains from selling a product or service after the costs of production and selling have been deducted.[audio]

protest- declare and object to something formally.[audio]

provision- condition; contract.[audio]

publication- to print and offer for sale in public.[audio]

public polarization- a condition in which people disagree strongly about an issue and cannot make an agreement.[audio]

purchase- buy.[audio]

Puritans- English people who were persecuted because they wanted to purify the religious practices of the Church of England. They emigrated to the colonies to escape the persecution.[audio]


Q through Z

Quakers- a religious group that came to America to escape persecution in England. They are tolerant of other religions.[audio]

radical- a person who wants to change the way a society is organized or governed.[audio]

rally- draw or call together for a common purpose.[audio]

ratify- to formally agree to a plan.[audio]

raw materials- natural resources from the earth used in manufacturing to make finished products and goods.[audio]

ready-to-wear- clothing items not fitted to each person, but made in standard sizes that can be mass produced.[audio]

rebellion- an action against those in power.[audio]

rebels- those who defy authority.[audio]

reclaim- claim (demand) again.[audio]

reconstruction- the act of constructing again; a rebuilding.[audio]

recreation- play.[audio]

recruit- to hire, look for new men (for the army).[audio]

reform- make an improvement.[audio]

refuge- shelter or protection from danger.[audio]

regiment- soldiers; troops.[audio]

register- record.[audio]

regulate- direct or govern by rule.[audio]

reparation- payment for making up damage.[audio]

repeal- to cancel a law.[audio]

rescue- help from danger or evil.[audio]

resentment- hatred; anger.[audio]

reservation- an area of land set aside for Native Americans.[audio]

residents- people who live in a certain place.[audio]

resign- give up a position or post.[audio]

resistance- the act of being resisting (refusing to agree on).[audio]

restrict- to limit.[audio]

resources- things and people available for use in reaching a goal.[audio]

resume- continue/begin again after interruption.[audio]

revenue-generating laws- laws designed to raise money for a government.[audio]

revoke- stop by taking back; cancel.[audio]

riot- disturbance from disorderly conduct.[audio]

rivals- people or countries who compete against each other.[audio]

rural- an area, such as a farm or small town, where few people live.[audio]

sabotage- violent destruction.[audio]

scatter- locate in distanced places.[audio]

search and seizure- police or army's action of looking for and taking away property.[audio]

search warrant- a paper signed by a judge that allows the police to search someone's home or property.[audio]

secede- to stop being part of a country.[audio]

segregation- the practice of separating culture by the color of one's skin.[audio]

seize- grasp suddenly; try to legally possess/own.[audio]

self-government- able to operate own government.[audio]

self-sufficient- a state of being able to make all the things needed for survival on one's own.[audio]

Senate- the House of Congress with two members from each state.[audio]

servitude- slavery (complete control of a person by another person).[audio]

settlers- people who move to stay in a certain place.[audio]

shelter- a roofed place; house.[audio]

significant- large.[audio]

slavery- complete control of a person by another person.[audio]

slogan- a special phrase that is used for guiding people.[audio]

smuggling- secretly and illegally bringing goods into a place or country.[audio]

Spaniards- people in Spain.[audio]

specialize- become very familiar with and good at doing one particular job.[audio]

spectator- a person who buys something with the hope that it will significantly increase in value.[audio]

sponsor- a person or company who supports for another financially.[audio]

Stamp Act- an act passed by the British parliament requiring the colonists to pay a tax to Britain on all legal papers and other printed things.[audio]

starvation- dying of hunger.[audio]

starve- to die of hunger.[audio]

stockbrokers- people who buys and sells the stock (shares of corporations' ownership).[audio]

stock market- place for exchanging the stock (shares of corporations' ownership).[audio]

stockpile- to collect and save something that people fear they will not be able to get later.[audio]

Suffolk Resolves- a document that a group of radicals succeeded in getting the Congress to agree; main issues are (1) to set up a boycott of British goods by the colonies and (2) to restart local militias in each colony.[audio]

Sugar Act- a law passed by the British Parliament to raise money in the colonies by taxing sugar and other products.[audio]

superior- more excellent; greater; higher.[audio]

supplement- add something for a support.[audio]

supplies- products necessary to live.[audio]

supply- how much of a product is available to sell.[audio]

surrender- give up.[audio]

tactics- strategies; plans of movement of the troops in the battles.[audio]

tariff- a government tax that is added on imports or exports.[audio]

temporary- last only a short period.[audio]

tenant farmers- farmers who work in other's land.[audio]

10% Plan- President Lincoln's plan for redeveloping the South after the Civil War.[audio]

terminology- special vocabulary words or terms for the area of study.[audio]

terrorize- to dominate by fear and intimidation.[audio]

textiles- weaving or cloth.[audio]

timber- growing trees.[audio]

Tories (or Loyalists)- colonists who supported the British government and wanted Britain to win the Revolutionary War.[audio]

total war- a war that an army destroys everything with military or economic value of the opponent.[audio]

Townshend Acts- a tax put on colonial imports before they were sold to the colonists.[audio]

trade- the buying, selling, and transporting of products and goods.[audio]

trade laws- laws that control imports and exports.[audio]

trade route- the way traders go to reach a market.[audio]

traitor- one who betrays.[audio]

treasury- the funds of a government.[audio]

treaty- a written agreement between groups of people.[audio]

Treaty of Paris (1783)- a treaty between England and France that ended the French and Indian War.[audio]

tremendous- very great in size, amount, or degree; enormous.[audio]

trench- a long, narrow hole in the ground as a shelter in warfare.[audio]

trial by jury- to make court decisions from the decision by jury (12 ordinary people selected).[audio]

tribe- a group of Native Americans who owns their own culture and lived together in a certain area.[audio]

trigger- cause something to happen.[audio]

unconstitutional- not in accordance with the constitution.[audio]

uncultivated- undeveloped, waste, and barren (land).[audio]

unify- form into a single whole.[audio]

Union [or North] - the 24 states that remained in the country after South formed the Confederacy.[audio]

universe- the whole world.[audio]

urban- an area, such as a city, where many people live.[audio]

ventilation- a condition that lets fresh air into.[audio]

vertical integration- a condition which a company controls everything needed to make a product.[audio]

veto- president's right to reject or cancel the bill passed by Congress.[audio]

virtue- a moral (knowledge of right from wrong behavior).[audio]

voluntary- done by one's own decision or free choice.[audio]

voyage- a journey to a distant place.[audio]

wage- engage; carry on.[audio]

wages- earnings, money paid for doing work.[audio]

War Hawks- representatives in Congress who supported the War of 1812.[audio]

wealth- riches.[audio]

wilderness- a land in which no people live.[audio]

withhold- refuse to accept/release.[audio]


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